Welcome to Yonge & College Optometry

Opening Hours : Monday to Friday - 9am to 6pm
  Contact : (647) 748-3937

Other Eye Conditions

A cataract refers to blurry vision secondary to a clouding of the lens inside the eye. There are multiple types of cataracts, the most common being senile cataracts that develop as we age. Other cataracts can be congenital (present since birth), traumatic (from an eye injury), or secondary to a medicinal side effect, like corticosteroids. Symptoms of cataracts include blurry vision, increased glare sensitivity and change in color perception. UV radiation has been shown to increase the progression of cataracts. As cataracts progress, there is usually a shift in your spectacle prescription, however it reaches a point where glasses can no longer improve your vision and surgery may be necessary to remove the cataract and restore normal vision.

Glaucoma refers to a type of progressive disease that can lead to permanent vision loss due to damage caused to the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. The most common cause of glaucoma is characterized by increased pressure of the fluid inside the eye, which can lead to damage of the retinal nerve fiber layer and to the optic nerve itself. Once detected, damage can be stopped, or slowed-down, by adequately lowing the intraocular pressure, often with the use of pressure-lowering eyedrops. Although elevated pressure is one of the most spoken about causes of glaucoma, it is only one of it’s causes. it is very possible to have glaucoma, while also having a normal eye pressure. In fact, 50% of glaucoma cases are those that are caused by factors other than a high eye pressure. In order for the doctor to determine if you do indeed have glaucoma, he/she would have to examine your optic nerve head. Another important fact about glaucoma is that it tends to run in families. Although anyone can develop glaucoma, there are 3 groups of individuals who have a higher risk in developing the disease; Those individuals with a family history of glaucoma, anyone over the age of 60, as well as individuals of African American decent. One of the reasons it is important to have periodic eye exams to test for glaucoma is because it often does not have any symptoms! In fact the patient is often unaware that anything could be wrong since the vision is usually 20/20. The prognosis of glaucoma depends on how early it is detected. Once diagnosed, glaucoma can be managed with pressure lowering eye drops, laser procedures, and sometimes requires surgery. If glaucoma is left untreated, it will result in blindness.

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of preventable blindness in North America.

Diabetes is the number one cause of preventable blindness in North America. Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease that affects the blood vessels in the retina. In the early stages of this disease, patients are often not aware that they have a problem because they do not have any symptoms. As the disease progresses, the blood vessels in the eye become ‘leaky’ and either fluid or blood may leak into the central area of vision causing blurred vision, distorted images or complete vision loss. Additionally, fragile new blood vessels may grow throughout the retina, which can scar and eventually may lead to retinal detachment as well as permanent vision loss.

It is very important that every diabetic individual have a comprehensive eye exam yearly, including a thorough dilated retinal exam. Proper blood sugar control can prevent or delay the visual complications associated with diabetic retinopathy, however, sometimes surgery or other treatments are necessary to prevent permanent vision loss.

ARMD refers to a degenerative disease that affects the macula and can lead to severe vision impairment. The macula is the central portion of the retina at the back of the eye. It is responsible for both detailed vision, as well as color vision. We use our maculas on a daily basis; to read books, recognize faces, read our emails, thread needles, cook meals etc. The macula is a highly specialized part of the central nervous system. It is densely packed with 2 types of cells; photoreceptors that detect light stimuli and neurons that interpret and transmit these signals to the brain. Needless to say, if our maculas are negatively affected, our daily functioning becomes more difficult.

There are two types of macular degeneration (AMD); dry AMD and wet AMD.

DRY AMD: results in the gradual breakdown of the cells in the macula. This stage is often characterized by single or multiple round, yellow spots called drusen- that are easily seen by your eye doctor. These identifying spots often become visible after the age of 30, but are more commonly seen in individuals over the age of 70. In the early stages of this disease, patients often don’t have symptoms. Most patients with AMD start in the dry phase and sometime convert into the wet phase of AMD.

WET AMD: results from the leaking, bleeding or scarring of abnormal blood vessles around the macula, resulting in distortion of the central vision. Distorted vision in this type of the disease is common to begin in one eye and later affect the second eye. In contrast to the dry type of AMD, vision loss may progress rapidly in the wet type of AMD.

Strabismus, also known as an “eye turn,” occurs when our two eyes do not align properly. This misalignment can occur vertically, horizontally, or a combination of both. An eye turn is not necessarily present all the time, but can also occur periodically, and is usually present at birth or in the first few years of life. In young children, if the strabismus is not properly attended to, it can lead to permanently reduced vision in one or both eyes.

Eye turns can also be associated with diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and other neurological disorders. Sudden onset of an eye turn requires immediate attention because it can be a symptom of other serious and life threatening diseases.